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George using analytics. Therefore, it narrows the chance of winning which broadens the betting companies advantage. They make huge profits from it, he adds. Yodit, her name has been changed upon request, works in one of the betting companies as a reception and casher.
She said that her company collect 50 thousand birr on average from the 70 branches in Addis Ababa and regional branches daily. He was writing his prediction on a piece of paper, but now he uses a computer. The maximum winning lottery at Hulu Sport Betting is 64, birr by 20 birr, though the maximum winning cap is , birr. The number of sport betting companies in Ethiopia is low compared to other African countries.
As the business needs an Internet connection, sometimes, the network affect us, Abrham says. According to an agreement with the National Lottery Administration, all betting companies are obliged to disperse 20 percent or more from their net profits to sport institution or clubs, however none of those betting companies have been discharging their corporate social responsibilities.
In neighboring Kenya, there are more than 20 local and international firms who opened their doors to betting services, making it the third-largest market in Africa next to South Africa and Nigeria. In Kenya alone, a study found that an estimated two million individuals are engaged in mobile-based sports betting.
Local News. The streak of inflation. AME proposes community based mining at Qenticha. The horticulture sector to receive new policy. Teddy Afro scheduled to hold a concert in Bahir Dar January 15, Keep watching Al Shabaab carefully February 4, Problem gamblers reported that appeals to ease of placing the bet, the time-limited nature of a bet, or that are humorous, substantially increased their likelihood of placing impulse bets.
Thus, message format, presenter, content, and appeal may be particularly salient message attributes for high-risk gamblers. The range of sports bets offered has enormously expanded in recent years. Of particular concern is the ability to bet in-play on micro-bets because this enables repetitive, high-frequency betting involving quick decision-making, which may not enable an informed, considered approach to gambling.
Wagering inducements, such as bonus bets, cash rebates, and special odds, are heavily advertised and alter the structural features of bets. They typically offer a refund if the bet loses but other conditions are met, e. Overall, previous research suggests that several message attributes may be persuasive in engaging the desire to bet on sports.
Based on this process, this study aimed to identify which selected attributes of sports betting advertisements most impact on engaging attention, interest, desire, and likelihood of betting action among non-problem, low-risk, moderate-risk, and problem gamblers — based on their responses to mock sports betting advertisements.
All respondents resided in Queensland Australia and completed an online survey, which included an informed consent preamble. As the study examined a range of message elements in sports betting advertisements identified from the literature, it was not possible to use existing or genuine advertisements. As a result, an experimental design utilizing conjoint analysis examined the persuasive effect of different message attributes in sports betting advertisements specifically developed for the study.
These were three message formats commentary, on-screen display, and studio crossover , four types of appeal neutral, jovial, ease of placing the bet, and sense of urgency , and three types of presenters match presenter, sports betting operator, and attractive non-expert presenter. All the presenters were male, with the exception of the attractive non-expert presenter who was female.
The design also included four bet types: a traditional bet on which team will win the match; an exotic bet on a key event in the match based on which team will score the first point; a risk-free bet based on receiving a refund if your team loses by 10 points or less; and a micro-bet based on which team will give away the next penalty. A fractional factorial design was generated by SPSS V21 to provide an orthogonal array, which was used to develop the full-profile messages.
Using the default, 16 cases were suggested and a further four included as hold-out cases to check the validity of the model. The profiles were developed into 20 individual scripts for sports betting advertisements, drawing on examples from Australian sports broadcasts. Each script included the attributes and attribute levels identified for each profile.
To reduce the influence of intervening variables, all scripts related to betting on rugby league, as this is the most popular professional sport in Queensland. These written scripts were pilot tested with five regular sports bettors, with minor modifications made based on their feedback.
However, our film production budget was a fraction of that available to sports betting operators; hence our mock advertisements could not completely match the caliber and professionalism of real sports betting advertisements. We used mock advertisements because using real sports betting advertisements would not have allowed us to systematically vary each message element, which is essential to conjoint design.
This prevented inclusion of real and well-known sports participants and presenters in the advertisements, as sometimes occurs in these types of advertisements. All advertisements were then linked to the survey via www. Questions about the mock sports betting advertisements aligned with steps in the AIDA model.
Sociodemographic data. Gender, age, marital status, household composition, work status, and household income bracket were also collected. The utility weights are derived by dummy coding effects coding the orthogonal design and solving the equation using ordinary least square regression of the ratings to arrive at the utility estimates.
Effects coding results in the utilities summing to zero within each attribute, hence the positive and negative values reported in the tables that follow. Higher importance and utility scores indicate greater preference. The study procedures were carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. All subjects were informed about the study and all provided informed consent. In terms of importance, the presenter attribute was highest for the problem gambler and non-problem gambler groups, and the bet attribute highest for the low- and moderate-risk gambler groups.
These results were reversed for the second most attention-grabbing attribute. In terms of the utility estimates, all PGSI groups rated the attractive non-expert female highest among types of presenters, and the risk-free bet highest among bet types. The two remaining attributes, message format and appeal, had lower importance levels. The message format attribute was more attention-grabbing for the non-problem, low-risk, and moderate-risk gamblers than for the problem gamblers, who found the appeal attribute to be more attention-grabbing.
Of the message formats, a commentary format was more attention-grabbing for the non-problem and moderate-risk gamblers, whereas the on-screen display attracted most attention from the low-risk and problem gamblers. Among the different types of appeals, a neutral appeal gained most attention from problem and moderate-risk gamblers, sense of urgency from low-risk gamblers, and ease of placing the bet from non-problem gamblers.
The four PGSI groups all indicated the bet attribute was most important in gaining their interest, with highest importance ratings made by the low- and moderate-risk gamblers. Among bet types, the risk-free bet had the highest utility score for all four groups, and the problem gambler group also found the micro-bet to be of interest.
Among all PGSI groups, the presenter attribute had the second highest importance score, with the attractive non-expert female receiving the highest utility score. Problem and low-risk gamblers had higher importance scores for the appeal attribute, whereas the non-problem and moderate-risk gamblers had higher importance scores for the message format attribute. The sense of urgency and the on-screen display were the appeal and message format, respectively, that gained most interest among low-risk gamblers, whereas the other PGSI groups responded with more interest to the neutral appeal and commentary format.
The bet attribute again had the highest importance for all four groups; however, non-problem, low-risk, and moderate-risk gamblers had much higher scores than the problem gambler group, who assigned more weight to type of presenter. Again, the risk-free bet had the highest utility weighting of all bet types among all four groups. The problem gambler group also found the micro-bet to have positive utility.
The second most important attribute was the presenter for the problem gambler and non-problem gambler groups, type of message format for the moderate-risk gambler group, and type of appeal for the low-risk gambler group. For the problem gambler group, the presenter attribute was only slightly less important than the bet attribute. Again, the attractive non-expert female had the highest utility score for presenter type among all PGSI groups.
The message format attribute was third most important for the problem gambler group, presenter type for the low- and moderate-risk gambler groups, and the appeal attribute for the non-problem gambler group.
Of the appeal types, the non-problem and problem gamblers were most tempted by ease of placing the bet, whereas the low- and moderate-risk gamblers were most tempted by a sense of urgency. Of the message formats, low-risk gamblers were most tempted when the message was an on-screen display, whereas the other groups responded most to a commentary format.
Again the problem gambler group had a relatively high importance score for the presenter attribute, and specifically the attractive non-expert female presenter. The other three PGSI groups also responded most to this type of presenter. Among problem gamblers, type of appeal was third most important, with a neutral appeal most effective in increasing their likelihood of placing the bet. Among the message formats, this group responded most strongly to the on-screen display.
The moderate-risk gamblers responded with similar strength to the presenter and appeal attributes, and less to the message format. Among the types of appeal and message format, this group responded most to a sense of urgency and a studio-crossover format, respectively. After type of bet, the low-risk gamblers assigned more importance to the type of message format, followed by the type of presenter and type of appeal.
Among these attributes, they responded most to the on-screen display, attractive non-expert female presenter, and an appeal to a sense of urgency. Finally, the non-problem gamblers rated the appeal type as second most important after bet type, and responded most to an appeal emphasizing ease of placing the bet.
Third in importance was type of presenter, with the attractive non-expert female having the highest utility. Among message formats, this group responded most strongly to the commentary. Summary of most important attribute and level for all PGSI groups for attention, interest, temptation, and likelihood of placing the bet. The most attention-grabbing attributes in our mock sports betting advertisements were type of presenter and type of bet.
The attractive non-expert female presenter gained more attention from all PGSI groups than did the match commentator or sports betting operator. The younger male profile in our sample, particularly among the problem and moderate-risk gambler groups, may also explain why the attractive female presenter gained the most attention in our mock advertisements.
Type of bet was the most persuasive message attribute in converting attention into likely action among all PGSI groups.
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