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|Nfl week 2 2021 betting lines||University webradio platform interaction is a joelmir betting band news bh form to establish relationships with professors32 ECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, content, audiences — conference Q2: Do social networks contribute to the increase of multimedia expressiveness on radio? David Hendy makes the point that, mdjs cote sport betting, radio is a time-based medium since its programs emergein a linear flow of time Professors identified three issues which can build pride in belonging: to have a new channel of internalcommunication; the dissemination of University activities to the society and its recognition by the latter; and theinvolvement of different groups of the academic community in order to develop content for this radio. One of the dimensions in which differences of values are noticeable is in the fans' decisions to produce in the texts a 'supporters' viewpoint', which is purposely partial and passionate.|
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|Joelmir betting band news bh||Every daythe same dynamic takes place: when the programme begins, fans stop posting videos it is like when a concertbegins and the audience falls silent : they agree to enter into another dimension, the spectacular one. For El-Fahl"chronicle, for its hybrid nature, something 919 sport betting journalism, literature and history, has always been the subject of controversies, especially when it comes to a confusing theorisation, which in some way has made it harder to include it as a canonical genre" p. The new leaders are also important when it comes to the tone of conviviality and the style of interactions in their communities. Thus, when we are talking about the relationship between journalism and social networks, participatoryjournalism is frequently highlighted as a benefit. Also, the fact that these texts are elaborated within their individual club's fan cultures has led to the development of a more postmodern sporting-chronicle style. Tweets were used for almost noother purposes. It is usedas a multimedia archive of the programme.|
For Rafael Lima, from Cam1sa Do2e, there is a personal satisfaction that comes with working with something that you like so much. The pleasure that most supporters mention is strongly associated with the collaborative character of such projects. These projects are built on the contact with other supporters and formed from relationships that are less hierarchical than those found between mainstream media organisations and their audiences.
One of the greatest motivations for the supporters interviewed comes from the companionship of other supporters or from the sociability found in the quotidian conviviality with an audience that here is clearly not separated from the producers. As I discussed in Chapter 5, Simmel was one of the first to seriously take into account the social encounter, the less instrumental act from where what he called sociability can emerge. Sociability is the term used by the German sociologist to refer to a distinct social form that extracts all the serious substance of life leaving only the relationship, the togetherness.
A truly social game, sociability is found in a variety of conversations and playful activities, arising from practices such as playing card games and team sports. Resulting from interactions with no pragmatic purposes, sociability is the essence of association, of the associative process as a value and as a satisfaction in itself. It is, above all, about the pure pleasure of companionship and differs tremendously from the results of instrumental communication.
According to Simmel , the interaction defined by the characteristics of sociability has a self-sufficient content, in the sense that it is the satisfaction of the relationship itself that wants to be nothing but relation that moves such type of encounters.
Life stories, jokes and anecdotes that often serve only as a pastime reflect these imperative elements of sociability. Later, Oldenburg extends Simmel's work discussing places where such encounters tend to happen the 'third places' I discussed in Chapter 5 and reassures us of the importance of such places for the health of communities. Giulianotti , on the other hand, adopts Simmel's sociology and his concept of sociability to understand the culture around the Tartan Army, group of supporters of the Scottish national football team that emerged in the context of the hooligan culture and became known by their friendly and festive behaviour inside the stadium.
For Giulianotti , the group and its conviviality provide a type of escape from the oppressing modern culture, expressing, in this sense, the importance that Simmel had given to the sociable encounter:To! The production model of WRG does not have any type of monetisation of labour. It does not generate any type of financial compensation for its producers, who are part of a gift economy -they make exchanges with a couple of partners, such as a designer also a supporter who did their website layout in exchange for publicity on their homepage.
Indeed, their expenses are significant, as is the time spent with the production of the programs given the producers' personal and professional pressures. Asked about the reason for continuing with the project, which has been on for three years and counts on many collaborators, Eduardo specifically stressed the importance of the friendships and the pleasure that comes from the pure sociability experienced within the radio station and its community.
To engage in a combination of hobbies. Some of the interviewees stressed that they felt passion both for the club and for their content-production activities. For Leide Botelho, a collaborator at WRG and NotiGalo, her passion for writing is one of the things that motivated her: Among the 11 interviewees, two were journalism undergraduate students, two were professional journalists working in areas other than sport , and one was an advertiser.
Their strong association with studies and work in professional communication expresses rather well how their passion for the club was combined with an interest in the activity of producing media content.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Other supporters reported motivations of a more political nature. This is the case with Zeca and the abovementioned podcast, Galocast. This supporter has been part of online!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
To produce what was missing and share with other supporters. Most homegrounds and headquarters of popular professional clubs in Brazil are located in big metropolises and that is because football culture has historically developed in association with urbanisation processes everywhere, including in Brazil Damo, Damo, , Giulianotti, ;Taylor, For that reason, the features characterising the supporterclub relationship, and even the club preferences, may be significantly distinct among those living in the capitals and in provincial areas.
Meanwhile, in BH, less than 2. When it comes to media coverage, the existence of regional network affiliates in diverse parts of the states -which produce then content that is relatively distinct from the capitals' networks -simultaneously collaborates and reflects such differences.
Then, for those who live in the countryside, but choose to support clubs from the capital, it is harder to follow their teams than if they were living geographically close to the club, in the capital. The gap in available material for supporters from provincial areas led Rafael Lima to produce original content. Rafael believes that supporters from provincial areas face more difficulties when they are interested in becoming more dedicated supporters. Fan groups often dismantle more easily and the club culture is experienced at a distance in these situations.
As a result, the relationship between supporters and clubs is also weaker and football clubs do not occupy such a central position for everyday sociability as they do in the urban areas:! Some content producers are seen!! Atleticano doesn't miss a Galo's match for anything! The same approach is found in Daniel Teobaldo's work, another photographer who places Galo's torcida at the centre of the narratives and, above all, of that fateful match see Figure 6.
Talking as supporters in their texts. This perspective could also be used as a broader approach because it actually defines the texts produced by the interviewed supporters. However, the specific focus here is the use of more radical and passionate language, which resort most of the time to rivalry, especially to jokes with Cruzeiro supporters, as the raw material for the text. It is a more aggressive style of speech, loaded with qualifying adjectives for both the players of the team and those of the rival.
It is not a simple rude name-calling or an injurious attack to someone's honour; it is rather a discourse that reflects a bar conversation, the rage before a missed goal, and the pure irrationality that surrounds football supporting. According to Leide, this type of radicalism does not exist in the mainstream media; if this content were produced by journalists, it would not be consumed by supporters who cannot handle 'others' speaking negatively about their club.
In the supporters' speech, on the other hand, a higher level of criticism is allowed, even though, for many, this aspect has become a criterion that defines how much of a supporter someone is. The corneta 89 , for some, is only a critic and says the truth about the team at all costs.
Wilson Franco also stresses how this radicalism, "a thing of supporters indeed", may often be misunderstood.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Embracing a literary perspective. For many of those interviewed, the key example was Roberto Drummond, a writer from Minas Gerais who portrayed, as nobody else was able to, the soul of atleticanos.
Elen Campos, who the interviewees very often cited as a representation of this The tone of the text is set in three key ways:!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Even though the text is about a non-original topic after all, everybody was talking about the match the following day, even supporters of other clubs , its style makes it appear authentic and novel. As Elen explains, her writing process is long: "I can say that my process is dragged out. Because when it reaches the form of a text it means that I have been reading about it, seeing things and discussing it on Twitter for a very long time".
Because the central concern is aesthetic, Elen's texts are highly intertextual, dialoguing with other supporters, with conversations that she has on Twitter, and with other texts and topics. For example, in the post Mas isso era antes 98 But this was before , she openly takes inspiration from the textual structure used by the actor and writer Gregorio Duvivier in his article Mas antes 99 But before.
Elen sees her aesthetically focused approach to football as more feminine. And, coincidence or not, another woman who was interviewed, Leide Botelho, was also mentioned by the other interviewees as representing this type of perspective. On the other hand, the interviewees also referred to male supporters that care deeply about textual aesthetics. Adopting a critical attitude.
Other supporters have taken on a more critical attitude in their work. The focus in this case is often on topics such as the season-ticket program, the media coverage about the club, and political issues surrounding the organisation of tournaments in the country. As I Today, this perspective is found, for instance, in the already mentioned vlog Espora Afiada Sharp Spur , a type of spin-off of Galocast. Espora Afiada has been produced since , and has, at the time of writing, 49 episodes, 2, subscribers on its YouTube channel and around , views data from October In some episodes, CBF and its controversial actions, racism and police brutality are also discussed.
Most programs are shot at Zeca's place, where he has a small office to work on the project. But, in some situations, he also does some external shooting, like in the above-mentioned example, when he recorded his own experience of exchanging for the first time GNV tickets in the headquarters of the club. Focusing on the information and in technical analyses. At last, we have the perspective that may be considered the least innovative in the sense that it does not invert that much the logic of the conventional football coverage done through the traditional media.
For instance, numerous accounts on Twitter are used, in this sense, as web feed, so that news published in diverse media about the club is collected in only one place. Many blogs also reproduce -many times in their own words, I must say -the journalistic style of reporting events involving the club e. Some supporters also make technical and tactical analyses that may surpass the ones done by professional journalists because of the deep knowledge that they have about the schemes used by the team over a championship.
Ultimately, content that solely analyses a team's line-up or resorts to reports officially publicised and widely known information such as details about the match kick-off time, venue, opponent, referees and assistants is not very original. In these cases, supporters are doing a similar job to that done by professional media producers. Although this previous research is important for providing elements that help us to understand the particular cultures they address US sports, tennis and gymnastics , here, I sought to explore another sport and context, and to adopt a significantly different approach.
Fundamentally, all of this previous research was developed within the academic field of journalism studies, and included discussions about blogs, also from a journalism-focused viewpoint; my approach, on the other hand, is strongly grounded in the academic field of fandom culture, which is in general more aligned with cultural studies.
These theoretical options have many implications. For instance, to some extent, this previous literature adopts normative perspectives that situate sports journalism as the parameter and then search in the blogs for similar content and approaches. However, in this thesis, I address blogs and other content produced by supporters as expressions of communities and supporting cultures, thus constituting forms of expression that are grounded in norms and values often distinct from those that rule traditional news production.
One of the dimensions in which differences of values are noticeable is in the fans' decisions to produce in the texts a 'supporters' viewpoint', which is purposely partial and passionate. These forms of original reporting may not necessarily be methods traditionally adopted by conventional media; for example, conventional media organisations would not send their reporters over to the middle of the stands, where Rafael Lima goes to tell the supporter's stories.
Yet, some enterprises discussed here strongly depend on the very traditional journalistic methods and routines as well. For instance, WRG producers and the photographers interviewed for this research have credentials to follow games in the press sector.
This official registration enables them to do a job under similar conditions to professionals -and the photographers, at least, are indeed professionals; they do not work for traditional media companies and they are not full-time fan photographers, but they sell their products to supporters and other people interested in them.
Furthermore, these photographers have found alternative ways to monetise their activities and create working conditions that are more professional. Because of his reputation and his longtime dedication to the club, in one week, almost supporters made donations that paid his travel expenses. In return, each one of the fans gained high-quality posters with his photos when he got back.
The only one who did not go that often to the stadium did not live in Belo Horizonte. Of the three interviewed supporters who did not live in BH, two said they still attended games regularly anyway. In addition, many supporters I talked to said they also sometimes went to matches in other cities, states and countries three indeed went to Morocco for the Club World Cup last year. The interviewed supporters did not simply 'mimic' journalism: they adopted the objectivity language of journalism, but recreated it by!
For example, at the centre of their stories, they placed their fellow supporters, the social actors with less political and symbolic power within the football field which includes organising bodies, media conglomerates, clubs, sponsors, other companies like stadium managers and so on.
Even though supporters and torcidas have a voice in the mainstream media coverage, they are not that often at the centre of the narratives, which often focus on players, sports leaders and clubs. Indeed, the mainstream journalists' dependency on these regular productive routines going to the training centres and doing the daily coverage of routine events involving clubs and players has kept them away from the unusual, ordinary, passionate and ultimately more engaging stories told by supporters.
Besides that, those texts that 'talk about the torcida' and those that focus on textual aesthetics, especially, are very close to the chronicle genre, particularly the form it assumed in Brazil. McGowan , who studies football literature, argues that fiction works are rather rare if compared with the accumulated amount of non-fiction literature published in this area. He also stresses the importance of such a genre as a creative and imaginative space to understand and explore in a deeper way the sport's place in culture.
Even though there may not be very much fiction produced in the case of football-supporting cultures in Brazil, a fictional element has been activated in combination with the journalistic language as it is peculiar to the chronicle genre itself. Also, the fact that these texts are elaborated within their individual club's fan cultures has led to the development of a more postmodern sporting-chronicle style.
In this new style, grand issues involving the Brazilian society, such as racism, national integration and even the national football squad and its players -topics that were portrayed by the great exponents of the canonical Brazilian sporting chronicle -are replaced by a more fragmented language and less totalising approaches.
In this emerging type of The genre acclimatised so well to Brazil that in the 20th century the chronicler role turned into an occupation, a paid job. For some researchers, the genre underwent such deep transformations when it arrived there, becoming 'brazilianised', that the modern-day Brazilian chronicle along with Cordel literature may be considered two of the few typically Brazilian literary genres Candido, ;Capraro, For El-Fahl , "chronicle, for its hybrid nature, something in-between journalism, literature and history, has always been the subject of controversies, especially when it comes to a confusing theorisation, which in some way has made it harder to include it as a canonical genre" p.
Capraro Ribeiro stresses that during the period of consolidation of the chronicle, when the book publishing industry was practically non-existent in Brazil, the genre anticipated in some aspects the mass culture of the 20th century.
A more popular form of literature and the result of two distinct languages -the literary and the journalistic -the feuilleton became a consumer item. For Ribeiro , the feuilleton popularisation also represented the popularisation of literature in a context in which books were a privileged medium for the literary expression of a cultural elite. Brazilian sporting chronicle, a subdivision within the broader chronicle genre, emerges at first associated with chroniclers who reported diverse topics of the everyday and, among them, football in a style known as colunismo social social columnism Capraro, Despite the term 'sporting chronicle' being used for this style, the vast majority is dedicated to football.
Capraro summarised the central topics and perspectives of Brazilian sporting chronicle over the 20th century: ginga! Now, it is turning into a style that expresses and reflects less about grand narratives such as the national identity and the civilising issue in Brazil as its predecessors to restrain itself to the universes shared by fans of individual clubs.
It is!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! It became popular with Nelson Rodrigues, one of the greatest Brazilian football chroniclers of all time. He also wrote one of the initial epigraphs of this thesis. After that, the expression became part of the football jargon and is used to designate goals that are distinguishingly hard and of rare beauty and, as such, also deserve a plaque Gol de Placa, In this sense, even football itself disappears, before a narrative that replaces a single culture football culture as a canon to be inspired by diverse cultures of clubs and torcidas, here elevated to the centre of the narratives.
I interviewed those supporters running the most popular productions within Galo's supporter base and found out that they were unlike pop-culture fans. Pop-culture fans often seek to explore alternative plots, less important characters and new narrative lines in their texts, regularly resorting, therefore, to fiction, to dialogue with the universe set in the canon. However, football supporters build their stories more in contraposition to journalism, as McCarthy also indicated.
Fan writers talk about their local cultures and myths; they worship their particular idols; they tell stories about the everyday, always resorting to inside jokes and anecdotes. Indeed, they bring to a hypercommodified and highly globalised culture, a pinch of regionalism and authenticity. It is not a glocalization practice.
The fan texts analysed here offer an imaginative and creative space where fans themselves may enjoy and reflect on their object of devotion. They, therefore, have both political and aesthetic value.! Such supporters occupy a central position in the networks formed by interactions about their clubs on Twitter, having indeed a strong cultural resonance on an everyday basis and possessing a type of cultural authority over their peers.
The new leaders are also important when it comes to the tone of conviviality and the style of interactions in their communities. At the end of Chapter 5, I explored how new supporting leaders have an important role as convergence points, fundamental for the coordination and mobilisation efforts of such dispersed groups.
When possible, I illustrate the analysis with examples also mentioned by the interviewees themselves. For example, podcasts, flogs, vlogs and other types of audio-visual productions have been overlooked.
Not to mention the projects that are intended to preserve the memory and history of football clubs, such as wikis and YouTube channels that retrieve and organise goals, matches and the teams' other historical moments. Texts here in the narrow sense , in comparison with other formats, demand less investment in terms of time, travel, equipment, training, mobilisation and so on. But there are also many experienced fan producers who use the written word as their main mode of communication.
Digital radio stations have also proliferated within football supporter bases in Brazil. WRG, created in , did not arise in a vacuum. The with the distinction that radio stations in general have live programming , podcasts are also very popular. Indeed, vlogs and other videos form one of most consumed types of fangenerated content among atleticanos. Besides Espora Afiada, channels such as the one of the blog Cam1sa Do2e 70 at YouTube 71 demonstrate the strength and esteem among fans for the audio-visual form.
The blog has more than 3, subscribers and almost 4. Supporter bases have also witnessed the spread of fan photographers. These supporters publicise their works on their personal websites and on social-media platforms. They also collaborate with countless other blogs -or, as they call it, with the Galosfera, in a pun with the words Galo and blogosfera blogosphere -where their photos are posted side-by-side with textual content produced by other supporters.
Beyond these formats, supporters have also involved themselves in projects designed to archive and preserve the memory of the club. It generally has two stages: one exam with multiple choice questions and one that contains open, written questions.
Both phases approach subjects from the high school curriculum and, especially in the second and last stage, good writing skills give students a significant edge for getting into the best institutions. Some adopt a politicised and critical tone, while others do not invert the informational approach of mainstream media institutions, mimicking in some sense the journalistic narrative.
The vast majority of the supporters and projects draw on all of these perspectives, even though some adopt one or another more often. Among them all, partiality and passion are two of the most used expressions to characterise their work. Focusing on the torcida in their narratives. A fundamental characteristic of some of the above-mentioned projects is exactly the change of focus that they promote in comparison with traditional journalistic coverage of football: in the centre of the narratives, we find the supporters, not players and football leaders.
Many of Rafael Lima's fellow Galo supporters, for instance, feel that he 'turned his back on the game and only talks about the torcida'. As the caption of the first episode says:"Leaving work early, arriving late at your wedding, forgetting your girlfriend's birthday, missing your daughter's baptism, not showing up for Oi.
Vai na padaria para mim, por favor. Tem jogo do Galo.! De novo! Tem milagre do Victor! Sadia, later known as Transbrasil , joined the partnership in In the service was discontinued, as more competitive economic times made airlines decide to operate their services independently on that route. Since the opening of Guarulhos Airport in , international flights no longer operate from Congonhas, and domestic operations have undergone restrictions.
Congonhas remains important to the city for regional and short-distance domestic flights. Therefore, even after Guarulhos International Airport was opened, Congonhas continued to face congestion problems, regarding both the number of passengers and the number of flight operations.
The airport administrator, Infraero , started in a comprehensive renovation plan of the airport complex. A remodeling of departure and arrival halls with installation of 12 jetways was completed on 15 August In December , a new parking garage was opened. The runways were resurfaced between February and September The airport has been troubled by slippery runways and has had several accidents where water accumulation has been a significant factor, the most notable being the one involving TAM Airlines Flight on 17 July although the main runway had been repaved in June , its new rainwater drainage grooves were only finished in September As a consequence of this accident and the subsequent public outcry for better safety performance and noise reduction, the airport's operations were significantly altered, through restrictions in the number of landing slots , flight distances, and operating times presently from to hours.
Furthermore, the maximum allowable gross weight of aircraft was reduced. The largest aircraft now operating at Congonhas are the Airbus A and the Boeing However, in the past the airport used to have operations with Boeing  and Airbus A wide-body aircraft , by the now-defunct airlines Transbrasil, VASP and Cruzeiro do Sul.
The investment involved a new control tower,  renovation of the apron, conclusion of the renovation on the south portion of the passenger terminal, and renovation of the north portion of the passenger terminal. Azul Brazilian Airlines offers free bus transfers for its passengers between Congonhas and Campinas-Viracopos International Airport during regular times. The ride takes about one hour, depending on traffic. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Infraero in Portuguese. Retrieved 22 June ANAC in Portuguese. Archived from the original on 5 June Retrieved 4 August Archived from the original on 8 August Retrieved 8 August Archived PDF from the original on 25 January Retrieved 3 August O Estado de S. Paulo acervo. Archived from the original on 20 August Retrieved 18 July Varig: Eterna Pioneira in Portuguese. Boeing , o primeiro do Brasil video. Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 23 July Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 8 May Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 18 March Rio de Janeiro: Europa.
Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on 4 November Retrieved 17 August
Citeste mai departe. An ocean is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere. A mineraloid is a mineral-like substance that does not demonstrate crystallinity. Mineraloids possess chemical compositions that vary beyond the generally accepted. Horse racing; Ice hockey; Karate; Olympics; Racing; Motorsport Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on an oval-shaped field. Horse racing; Ice hockey; Karate; Olympics; Racing; Motorsport Athletics is an exclusive collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping.
Blog da L! Blog do Baldini. Blog do Bechler. Blog do Kfouri. The crust of the Earth is composed of a great variety of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. The crust is underlain by the mantle. The upper. Theories of gravitation. News, comedy, talk shows, children's programming, sports and drama — there's something for every family member. PFC is the only channel dedicated exclusively to Brazilian Soccer.
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It might be in the Time Warner international channels package a group of foreign TV stations offered to subscribers at additional cost, akin to the Spanish-language package. Judging from what you wrote, I suggest checking DirecTV and Dish Network to see if they offer it among its international channels. Is that the channel that runs Bewitched and I Dream of Jeanie 24 hours a day.
I certainly hope you'll be able to get it and SOON! You don't know what you're missing. Endora and Major Nelson are crack ups! Trending News. Impeachment managers show chilling new footage. Democrats praise Pence for standing up to Trump. Star reveals 'last straw' against 'toxic' director.
Archived from the original on 4 April Archived from the original on 4 September Retrieved 21 January Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 15 August Retrieved 16 August Retrieved 24 May Retrieved 22 September Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 23 July Retrieved 11 July Retrieved on 9 March Retrieved 23 September The New York Times.
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Rating is available when the video has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Ou um Extra a qualquer dia. They have not been reviewed or approved by United. I do not speak for United. Advertisement Autoplay When autoplay is enabled, a suggested video will automatically play next. Up next The Downfall of Varig - Duration: EP - Duration: Sign in to add this to Watch Later Add to Loading playlists From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Garcez interpreted this as degrees, but the intended meaning was Varig's heading notation for the flight plan was changed to four digits from three while Garcez was on vacation, and it did not explicitly specify the position for the decimal point, which was implicitly located to the left of the rightmost digit.
That confusion was the primary cause for the disaster, along with other minor errors. When co-captain Zille got to his seat, instead of checking his own flight plan to adjust his HSI — as he was required to do — he only referenced the captain's indicator and set his to match it. Reluctant to use the HF radio to request help, the captain decided to take visual reference from a river he located below the plane, believing it to be the Amazon.
The river was actually the Xingu, which runs chiefly south-north, while the Amazon runs west-east. At that time, the flight had already taken 30 minutes longer than scheduled, and the passengers were getting anxious. After that, it was inevitable that the aircraft would have to make a forced landing into the rainforest in the north of Mato Grosso.
At the time there were no written procedures for such an emergency situation. During their descent, they spotted very few lights through the jungle, coming from the houses of farms that had electrical generators.
A few minutes later, when he had 15 minutes left of fuel, Garcez informed his passengers of the situation. The right engine ran for a further two minutes, and then stopped as well. Even after shutdown, the engines were still windmilling thanks to the passage of the air through them. This gave the airplane some rudimentary and unreliable hydraulic control.
Garcez commanded the lowering of the flaps, which only moved to position Two, around 10 degrees due to the failing hydraulic system. With the batteries discharged, there was no electrical power and the only four instruments working in the cockpit were the artificial horizon, the altimeter, the airspeed indicator and the vertical speed indicator.
The deceleration due to the crash was such that passengers without fastened seatbelts were flung to the front of the airplane, and some seats detached from the floor, also racing forward. When the aircraft fell through the foliage, two thick trees tore away both wings, and caused a severe torsion of the fuselage, which contributed to more seats detaching, and to the collapsing of the false roof over the passengers' heads.
Search and rescueOn 5 September, two days after the crash, Alfonso Saraiva and three other survivors started walking to look for help. By noon the next day, on their fourth day in the jungle, all survivors had been rescued by the FAB. CausesUpon investigation, it was concluded that the crash had been caused primarily by negligence on the part of the flight crew. Customary investigations showed that the aircraft was in perfect condition for the flight, and that its mandatory periodic inspections had been properly conducted.
It was concluded that the main factor for the accident was an error in reading the correct heading from the flight plan by the commander, compounded by the co-pilot copying the setting from the commander's panel instead of checking the flight plan. This misinterpretation changed the general direction from north-northeast Some English text, mostly Portuguese. Le Monde in French. Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 17 July Houston Chronicle.
Archived from the original on 23 July Archived from the original on 28 July Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 22 March Retrieved 4 July Season Episode 3. National Geographic Channel. Phoenix, AZ: Honeywell. Retrieved 2 June G1 in Portuguese. External links'Final accident report' in Portuguese.
Archived from the original on 3 September Archived from the original on 12 October The airline declared bankruptcy in History[change change source]Varig began on May 7, The airline took over many international destinations in the s from bankrupt Panair do Brasil, such as Frankfurt, Lisbon and Paris. Varig eventually became the largest airline in all of South America, after it bought many other smaller Brazilian airlines. Then, Varig stopped flying, and it became known as another airline in Encyclopedia Britannica.
On the Higher Education context many changes are occurring due to the introduction of newlearning paradigms, many of them take advantage of web 2. Social networks are currently being a do pted in many Higher Education communities as platformsto support the interaction among community members, taking advantage of the potential of thosenetworks to foster strong and meaningful relationships and support the awareness andconsolidation of group identity.
This potential is being explored to promote new possibilities forteaching and learning that include new approaches such as the personal learning environments. This article addresses the potential that radio services have for Higher Education communities in aweb 2.
The article explores theperceptions that Aveiro academic members have about webradio potentialities in terms of sense ofbelonging creation and community cohesion. Keywords: webradio, university, community, social networks Radio as a service of a university communityThe incorporation of the radio in the university field, as well as their potential use by the academiccommunity, is not a recent phenomenon.
The first initiative of this kind took place in at the University ofWisconsin Faus, College radio refers to a type of station that operates within an academic community and presentscharacteristics of community radio and educational ones. These stations can be a global institutional projectinvolving the entire university community or an initiative from a more restricted entity faculty, student union,student-teacher of a specific subject… Sauls, 1.
In fact, the phenomenon of college radio has evolved from the first experimental stations and, nowadays,has multiple configurations depending on the technological support broadcast FM, AM, web , audience of aclosed circuit to a wider community of listeners , aims education, outreach, entertainment or managementmodels Sauls, 2.
Characteristics that imply a programming for the college radio, different from commercial ones. This type of stations, to which also belong community radio stations, is characterized by uncommercialobjectives and social vocation. College radio has also a cohesive feature that, combined with the fact that itoperates within an academic community, gives it characteristics of community radio stations.
Indeed the main goal of any college radio is to provide a service to the community, regardless of whetherit is a strictly academic community or a wider community Sauls, 2. The purpose of this paper is to deepen into the perceptions that different audiences in the academiccommunity of Aveiro have about the potential of a college radio for the community cohesion and the promotionof a sense of belonging,.
The underlying conception of the university webradio is here a platform with links tosocial networks, a space to share materials among professors-students or students-students, and other kind ofinteraction tools. Radio transposition to the Internet offers lots of potentialities for the college stations.
In fact, since the early college radio web initiatives that took place in the late 90's, thisphenomenon has been expanding. The radiomorphosis. A new paradigm based on the interactionThe mediamorphosis Fidler, in radio renewed the audio product with the addition of componentsinherent to digital system.
Thus, webradio set up a platform where converge multiple features of the conventional media with thosederived from its new multimedia essence like flexibility, ubiquity, synchronous and asynchronous communication,language and interactive multimedia. The phenomenon of radiomorphosis Prata, was reflected primarily on the genres and on theinteraction. Two connected areas that establish the essence of the Internet medium and alter broadcastingconcept nature Cordeiro, From the perspective of interaction, the transfer from terrestrial radio to the web has strengthenedrelations with the user through new forms of relationship.
Interaction that has evolved from participation viaemail, an e-review of wiretapping tradicional model, to other nearish and instantaneous modes like socialnetworks. This is due to the return of listeners, interacting in relation tobroadcast content and also due to the release profile on portals, directories and virtual communities" Kischinhevsky, Radio 2.
An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptionsThe interaction of these listeners in multiple social networks establishes a relation between them and thepractitioner, a relationship which allows real-time feedback regarding the contents conveyed. This enablesconsolidation of collaborative media based on a single network that combines social networking and various webtools 2.
In this context,prosumer figure rises up as a listener consumer and content producer at once Toffler The multimedia nature of the web allows to push the limits established between the radio and its listeners. A relation marked by the fact that, as Moare stressed inBuffarah Junior, 6 there is no place on the net for passive recipients. The radio experience at that time,new concepts and gain time previously inaccessible devices " Ahmed, This new potential of Internet radio enables its use in a community college with multiple objectives.
The characteristics of this digital natives group can be considered convergent with the web broadcastingpotentiality: "nomadism, individualism, customization and personalization, exhibition and voyeurism, public andprivate space, memory of the generation on demand and a young profile in transformation" Rodrigues da Cunha, This convergence should not be dismissed on college radio.
Metho do logyTo accomplish the aim of assessing the perceptions that Aveiro University members from now on AU have about webradio potential for academic community cohesion, an approach to its main audiences has beencarried out: students and professors. An approach that a do pted different samples, analysis tool and metho do logy. The selection of both convenience samples was do ne according to different criteria.
StudentsAccording to Rose and Lenski and Baker students are configured as the primary recipient of auniversity webradio. This is a circumstance of special interest from the point of view of webradios potential foruniversity community cohesion.
A test sample of 78 individuals belonging to three different groups of students in the UA was chosen:communication graduate students masters and do ctorates , students coursing other subjects undergraduate andgraduate and foreign students-researchers in various scientific areas.
The selection of the second group of 18 undergraduate and graduate in other scientific areas was due tothe need for a sample of students from the AU whose media consumption, and ideas regarding the potential ofan university webradio, would not be influencied by their proximity to the field.
This sample could offer a differentperspective from communication students. The third group consisted on 15 foreign students-researchers all of them users of the residence of the UA as a representation of the relevance from this population in Aveiro university community. These three groups of students have in common their status as active users of social networks one ormore. This volume of hits in the sample reveals a prevailing culture of networks that could be transferred to theuniversity community realm.
Transfer that would enable the establishment of horizontal links between equals ,vertical students-professors and even of diagonal type with other audiences AU encouraging the universitycommunity cohesion. Figure 1. Frequency of use of social networks among students in the sampleThe questionnaire was chosen as the tool to understand the precepts that students have about thepotential of webradios for the university community. Data was collected quantitatively and qualitatively throughdifferent types of questions depending on the type of response: open, closed, multiple choice, yes or no, Likertscale or hierarchy scale.
The last part of the questionnaire focused on students preferences and perceptions about webradios andtheir ability to establish relationships with other community members, to strengthen the academic community andto foster a sense of belonging. It also included other issues, regarding the use of social media, as other tools ofweb 2.
In order to validate the questionnaire, acontrol group of five individuals belonging to the population under study was used, which allowed theimprovement of the formulation of some questions, as well as the overall coherence and organization of this datacollection tool. ProfessorsProfessors are the other main public from college radio and, for this reason, it would be interesting to learnabout their perception about college radio possibilities to strengthen of the academic community.
An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptionsin the research as a another sample could offer a richer vision of students answers about college radio and itscharacteristics. This selection is based on the assumption that, given their expertise, these professors would present abroad knowledge of new media and its possibilities, as well as offers a critical perspective of them.
In this sense, to get as much information as possible about the idea that professors have over theuniversity webradios, in-depth interview was chosen as a research tool. An interview of 20 minutes was structured around three blocks of questions: their perception of web radioas a casual user, their perception of the possibilities of this platform for the university community in general, andtheir perception of potentials that this webradio could provide for their specific teaching.
The contributions madeby professors during the course of these interviews were recorded in audio format and revised. This reviewallowed to draw ideas for the next phase of this research. Main resultsThe work developed allowed us to deepen into the precepts that, both students and professors, haveabout the benefits of a webradio implementation for the Aveiro university community.
These results werestructured in two blocks according to the sample and metho do logical differences. StudentsSurveyed students were particularly receptive to a webradio creation in the context of the Aveiro academycommunity.
However, students are not so sure that this platform is a good way to establish links between the differentaudiences of university webradio. This increase reflects a balancebetween those who advocate the potential of university webradios to establish relationships with peers and thosewho seem critics. University webradio platform interaction is a good form to establish relationships with professors32 ECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, content, audiences — conference An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptionsThe students concept about the webradio platforms potential to meet people or to promote a closerrelationship with classmates is a reflection of their use of social networks.
So the fact of coursing the same degree,course or courses, do es not imply the need for online links. A completely different situation is reflected in relationships with professors. The possibility to establish such relationships between two different audiences from the university sphereallows to foresee the perception of university webradios as a cohesiveness element for this kind of community Figure 5.
University webradio can promote university community cohesionAlthough most of the students do not totally agree with the creation a webradio platform to fosterinterpersonal interaction among peers or among professors, this trend is opposite when they are asked about itschances for community cohesion. University webradio can promote the feeling of university community membershipThe same happens with the feeling of belonging. Most students think that the creation of the AU webradioincreases the identification of academic community members with the university.
A similar percentage of those individuals also raises the possibility that this webradio becometheir favourite station. The sum of these realities would foster a community of loyal listeners that would stillremain at the basis of a constant feedback process: the fact that the radio becomes a favourite station favours anincreases of the pride of belonging, which in turn brings more listeners to the radio, etc.
However, despite their consideration of the university webradio for the cohesion of the academiccommunity and of its high consumption of social networks, only few students would incorporate them into aplatform of university webradio.
Only a third of the sample 37 individuals thinks that it would be interesting toinclude a link to the social networks. ProfessorsLikewise students, professors interviewed considered interesting the implementation a webradio universityin Aveiro academic community. This interest was justified by the need to give visibility to the activities of the university and to the type ofwork do ne by its researchers.
Visibility of internal type, as a channel to support the dissemination of daily activitiesbeyond the university web with low reading among students , and external, to engage a broader community inthe events taking place in the academic institution. Regarding the role of this webradio for the university community cohesion, all professors intervieweddefended its value for the creation of a sense of belonging.
In fact, for them, any new form of connection betweenthe various groups of the university improves community cohesion. A connection powered in webradio by prideof belonging. This pride of belonging is based, as targeted by professors interviewed in: Providing the community with a new channel that gives information about the events developed in theframework of the university quickly and efficiently. Professors indicated that, despite the many events heldat the UA, there is some opacity of information.
Any initiative that promotes the flow of information isoptimal to increase this sense of belonging. An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptions Informing society about research, experience or other events taking place in the AU or in collaborationwith it.
The disclosure of the activities carried out in the university not only contributes to the creation, orenhancement, of brand image of the AU, but also increases the pride of belonging of its members. In thissense, one of the professors interviewed referred to a television program of the AU which, despite the earlymorning broadcast, contributed to the identification of members of the community with the university.
Fostering collaboration between community members in developing content for this radio. This radiomanager should seek tools to review, create content, collaborate on the development of the grid etc. Thefact that students have a channel to whose contents they could collaborate is an element of interest for anidentification with the institution.
Similarsituation occurs when the voices of leaders are familiar. Also, these professors believe that social networks are an essential element to make horizontal and verticalcommunication easy, and with it, to facilitate the cohesion of the university community. Otherwise, any project is stillborn".
In short, professors defend the appropriateness of a webradio university for the academic communitycohesion. In this defense, some respondents cited the RUM University of Minho radio, Portugal as an example ofa station that encourages pride of belonging among members of the university community. These professors based on webradio cohesive role of a university the possibility of establishing a mediumto a large consumption by different audiences, sensitive to the tastes and interests of its members as well as aunique way of approaching what is happening in this community university.
Both groups believe that the radio platform on the web can be interesting for the cohesion of theacademic community and foster a sense of belonging. But students do not give too much value to this platform asa place to meet people or engage in closer relationships between classmates. Professors identified three issues which can build pride in belonging: to have a new channel of internalcommunication; the dissemination of University activities to the society and its recognition by the latter; and theinvolvement of different groups of the academic community in order to develop content for this radio.
When determining the type of social interaction tools that the webradio must configured, it is remarkablethat, while professors consider a "must" to create a platform strongly connected to social networks, only one thir do f the students consider it appropriate. In short, for students and professors, the implementation of a webradio university is an important elementto foster the university community both unity and communication a new channel of communication internal orexternal , by the participation in content production and with it, by the development of a sense of belonging.
Afeeling summed up in this sentence: "I am an official channel of the university and I have contributed to this". ReferencesAlbarran, Alan B. Radio Broadcasting Industry. Journal of Radio and Audio Media, Vol. New York: Semiotexte, pp.
La Radio. Mediamorphosis: Understanding New Media. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Atlantic Journal of Comunication, Vol. Comunicar, Vol. On the Horizont, Vol. Popular Music and Communication. Newbury Parl: Sage, pp. Joint Meetings of the Popular Culture Association. Studies in Popular Cultura, Vol. Braga: Universidade do Minho , pp. These new stations have emerged into a competitive broadcastingenvironment at a time of great technological change.
New digital broadcasting platforms arebeginning to become established in parallel with Internet and mobile phone network audiodelivery mechanisms and, as a result, the future technical development of the medium as a wholeis in something of a state of flux. At the heart of Community Radio is a range of diverse linkages and interactions with members ofindividual target communities. Within such a diverse broadcasting sector, how has the uptake ofso-called new media technologies developed, not just in terms of linear programme delivery, butalso with respect to podcasting, "listen again" services and the provision of additional text andvideo-based content?
This paper summarises the degree of uptake of new media technologies by the Community Radio sector and examines some of the impacts that may result from their use, both concerning theconsumption and the production of broadcast content. It concludes by suggesting how the futuredevelopment of Community Radio broadcasting in the UK may be influenced by the gradualacceptance of such new delivery platforms and the opportunities that may arise from suchacceptance.
Keywords: radio, community radio, technologyIntroductionOver recent years, the impact of Internet-based and other so-called 'new technologies' on Community Radio services has become increasingly important in a wide variety of ways stretching beyond the obviousprovision of additional programme content delivery opportunities.
However, the arrival of the various newtechnologies is also something of a do uble-edged sword, bringing threats as well as opportunities to theCommunity Radio sector around the world. As the senior electronic medium, broadcast radio has a long history. Evolving over time, radio hasexpanded both in terms of the number of stations broadcast and the nature of such stations.
In a Europeancontext, following an early experimental period, most jurisdictions established public service broadcasting as thefoundation of their broadcast radio provision. Later, legislative and regulatory frameworks were adapted and PSBproviders found themselves subject of commercial competition. Lawrie Hallettregulatory frameworks have gradually begun to change again, this time to accommodate Community Radio , theincreasing variety of broadcast radio services reflecting the growing diversity of the societies in which they arebased.
At the same time, however, broadcast media infrastructure is also changing. Internally, the medium isadapting to the emergence of various digital radio broadcasting platforms, whilst externally, the effectiveness ofso-called new media platforms is also creating opportunities and threats for broadcasters. The result of thiscombination of circumstances is that proponents of Community Radio seeking to establish and cement the sectoras a robust and integral third-tier of radio broadcasting, are do ing so in an atmosphere of regulatory andtechnological uncertainty and flux.
Alongside the development of platforms specifically designed for broadcasting purposes, new mediatechnologies have also been impacting on the operation of broadcast radio. Not only do the Internet the mobilephone networks provide alternative platforms for the delivery of linear radio in real time, but they also provideopportunities for the delivery of radio which is directly linked to other types of media content, and which caninclude 'on-demand' elements that can be both time-shifted and non-linear, such as 'listen again' services andpodcast programmes.
The Role of Community Radio There are some underlying commonalities which define community radio, such as operation on a not forprofit basis, a commitment to accountability and to the involvement of members of the target community in theoperation and management of the service concerned. However, a key feature of the sector as a whole lies in itsdiversity, each station is inevitably "shaped by its environment and the distinct culture, history and reality of thecommunity it serves" Buckley et al.
Put another way, there is no such thing as a typical communityradio service. Fundamentally, Community Radio services exist to serve defined communities, of place, or of interest. Nevertheless, well over such stations have been givenpermission to broadcast since full-time licensing commenced in , and more are currently in the process ofbeing licensed. As well as stations broadcasting to geographical communities, there are stations serving a varietyof niche and specialist communities, including ethnic and religious minorities, children, retired people, militarygarrisons, universities and the arts.
This public do cument, which is made available on-line by theU. To achieve the various social gain, access and accountability objectives effectively, Community Radio services require a high degree of integration with the membership of their target communities. Such integrationtakes time and effort to develop and sustain.
In practical terms, effective and successful Community Radio services require underpinning structures and processes to help establish, sustain and broaden the range oflinkages and opportunities for interaction with their target communities.
In the U. A Digital Dilemma? Although the world of radio broadcasting is changing fast, the vast majority of Community Radio servicesstill currently depend on analogue broadcast frequencies in order to deliver their programming to mass audiencesin a cost effective manner. It is increasingly the case that other non-broadcast delivery methods, such as webstreamingand pod-casting, are also able to attract listeners. However, despite their ability to deliver both linearand non-linear content, as yet, such platforms can only be considered supplementary to the use of traditionalbroadcast technologies and they are certainly not yet universally available in the same way that content deliveryvia the analogue broadcasting do main has been for many years.
In parallel, the arrival of digital radio broadcasting, in all its various forms, has resulted in politicians andregulators attempting to drive forward a process of technological transition. A key problem for theCommunity Radio sector is that the various proposals put forward by European policy makers, have tended tofocus pre do minantly on the requirements of the commercial and PSB sectors, thereby leaving Community Radio broadcasters on the periphery with a variety of resultant problems and risks for the future.
Ask politicians or regulators about Community Radio and they won't always know what you are talkingabout. Ask the same people about PSB or commercial radio and not only will they know what you are talkingabout but, almost certainly, they will also have some pretty firm opinions on the subject, perhaps dictated by theirpolitical affiliations rather than by any deep interest and understanding of the specific issues involved!
Thecomparatively limited profile of Community Radio is, in part, due to the sector's relatively small-scale bothnumerically in terms of stations broadcasting, and in relation to the often deliberately limited geographical focusof such stations. However, it is also due to the fact that, in most jurisdictions, the sector is comparatively youngand therefore inevitably lacking in terms of track-record.
It is a simple fact that, in addition to requiring a greatdeal of effort, relationships with politicians, regulators, funding bodies and partner organisations take aconsiderable length of time to establish and solidify. The historical tendency of European policy-makers to prioritise the requirements of larger PSB andcommercial broadcasters is perhaps not surprising, given the far greater scale of these sectors in comparison toCommunity Radio broadcasting.
The difficult for community broadcasters is that, in practice, this approach hasresulted in the promotion of multiplex digital platforms, such as DAB, which are simply not designed to cater forsmaller-scale local commercial and 'non-profit' Community Radio services, each with its own defined geographicalcoverage requirements.
Furthermore the current existence of a variety of jurisdiction-specific approaches to the'digital migration' of radio services in Europe creates uncertainty as to the eventual shape of the emergingtechnical and policy environment. Such political and regulatory involvement in the promotion of digital radio broadcasting, is in completecontrast to the virtual lack of such engagement with the various emerging non-broadcast delivery methods for'radio' programming content, using mobile phone networks and the Internet.
Historically, the digitalisationdiscourse as it relates to radio broadcasting has typically been characterised by considerable optimism on the partof those developing the various systems involved. Encouraged by such optimism, and by the promise ofadditional broadcasting capacity, politicians and regulators in many jurisdictions have driven forward theintroduction of new transmission platforms.
However, despite such official support, broadcasters and the publicECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, contents, audiences — conference Lawrie Halletttend to remain somewhat wary of investing in the technology and conversely remain largely supportive oftraditional FM broadcasting in particular. In short, the problem with digital radio platforms is that they offer toofew advantages over the older, established, analogue technologies.
In the eyes of the general public, theperipheral advantages offered, including additional channel capacity and enhanced radio-text etc. With various digital transmission platforms now either operational or nearing launch, it remains impossibleto predict which option or options will eventually emerge as the accepted standards in the longer term. Thisprocess of change is being further complicated by the increasing impacts of other, non-broadcast, audio deliveryplatforms.
However, what is clear is that some digital radio broadcasting platforms are more flexible than othersand that some are best suited only to particular types of radio broadcasting. As they exist today, none of thedigital broadcast radio platforms currently operating are able to provide a completely compatible alternative toanalogue radio broadcasting in all its various forms. Despite pressure for the 'digital migration' of many radio services, given the ubiquitous and flexible natureof FM broadcasting, it also seems likely that, in the majority of jurisdictions at least, its continued use forbroadcasting remains secure for the foreseeable future.
The 'opportunity cost' associated with continuing to useBand II FM for small-scale broadcasting services, even after larger stations have moved to alternative platforms,is minimal because the frequencies involved have wavelengths which make their use for telecommunicationsservices less than ideal. In addition, as both the AM and FM bands are internationally allocated for broadcasting and are likely to remain so for many years to come , there are limits as to what other uses they may be put to.
Recent suggestions by Ed Richards, the Chief Executive of Ofcom, that Band II could be used for so-called 'whitespace'devices Ofcom, may have some validity in the medium term, but, even if this proves to be the case,such devices could be interleaved to operate alongside traditional analogue broadcasting transmitters. Although the advent of digital radio transmission platforms offers at least the potential to help reduce theimbalance between supply and demand in terms of broadcast frequency availability, such developments certainly do not herald a complete end to frequency scarcity.
Inevitably therefore, competition for access to broadcastingspectrum rights will remain a barrier to entry for the foreseeable future and for many years to come. Assuming anongoing requirement for access to the airwaves, the question for Community Radio broadcasters is how best canthey obtain usage rights to a higher percentage of total available radio-broadcasting frequencies than is presentlythe case? If the sector is to be successful in such endeavours, it needs to continue to build up its circle of friends.
It will need to convince politicians and regulators of the strength of its case, something which may be easier saidthan do ne in the context of the strong, well organised lobbying capacity available to competing PSB andcommercial operators. In part because of such frequency scarcity issues, but also because of the various additional advantageswhich such technologies offer.
Community Radio has been quick to embrace a variety of Internet-based andmobile phone network technologies in order to enhance the delivery of their various services. However, when itcomes to the alternative of delivery of content via the Internet and other communications networks, the economicand operational models are somewhat different, for both broadcaster and listener alike.
For the purposes of thispaper, mobile phone networks can be considered a sub-set of Internet delivery, adding not only long-rangewireless connectivity and the delivery of web-based and other applications to portable devices, but also providingtheir own specific additional facilities such as text and picture messaging. In light of such developments and as new forms of mobile devices, such assmart-phones and 3G connected net-books, laptops and the tablet form PC, become increasingly prevalent, thedivide between the fixed line Internet and mobile telephony networks is becoming increasingly blurred.
Dealing with the broadcaster first, in some respects, the Internet provides additional opportunities that are,quite simply, beyond the capability of traditional broadcasting platforms. Staying with tools for broadcasters themselves, a further advantage of the Internet is its ability to deliverstreams of a station's live output. In other words, a copy of the station's traditional broadcast output can bedelivered in real-time to listeners who might be outside the coverage service area of the station's AM or FMtransmissions, or who might, for example, prefer to access such a stream while they work at an office computerterminal or from a laptop.
Because of the streaming nature of such services, their consumption requires that each listeneraccessing them has ongoing connectivity to the Internet for the duration of listening. Most flexible in terms of options for its consumption is the podcast. Those provided by radio broadcasterscan be regarded as being similar to those from other sources, although, because of their expertise and experiencein the sound medium, podcasts produced by radio professionals often have higher than average productionvalues.
The main advantage of the podcast over streaming is that it frees the user from the need for a constantconnection to the Internet. Typically, in a matter of a few seconds these can be do wnloaded to a computer, MP3player or mobile phone for later consumption and this process can be automated such that series programmingcontent is not missed by accident.
Once do wnloaded, not only can they be listened to at any time, but also, theycan then be easily archived and stored indefinitely by the user, for repeated listening at a later date. Copyrightissues aside, being typically provided in MP3 format, they can, at least in practical terms, also be copied foronward distribution to other potential listeners. The key point regarding these Internet delivery options is that, to a greater or lesser extent, each providesadditional flexibility in relation to the consumption of broadcast content.
Not only are the temporal constraints ofscheduling removed, but also, because content can be accessed outside the broadcast transmission service area ofthe station concerned, so too are geographical constraints on reception. Moreover, because, unlike traditionalbroadcasting, the Internet is fundamentally a bi-directional medium, it intrinsically enhances opportunities forinteraction between broadcasters and their audiences generally, and specifically in relation to the focus of thispaper, between Community Radio services and members of their target communities.
With a little effort,community-based broadcasters can learn a great deal about their target community through a simple analysis ofwho is listening to what and where on-line. Whilst on-line consumption of content cannot be assumed toECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, contents, audiences — conference Lawrie Hallettduplicate that carried out via traditional broadcasting platforms, it can at least provide some useful qualitativedata for programme makers and station management.
The Limits of New TechnologiesAlthough the use of such non-broadcast platforms can provide broadcasters with additional flexibility, for avariety of reasons, they do not yet constitute a replacement for traditional broadcast platforms. To begin with,rather than being one-to-many broadcasting platforms, both the Internet as currently constituted for audiocontent and the mobile phone are primarily designed as one-to-one communications platforms.
At present,mobile phone and mobile Internet platforms, lack universality and tend towards end-user cost models whichdiscourage the consumption of large amounts of data. In addition, the take-up of such platforms can be lower inareas of relative socio-economic deprivation, which are often the focus of Community Radio services.
However, itis quite clear that, as the carrying capacity of mobile phone networks expands and as improved methods ofmobile Internet delivery, such as WiMax, are implemented, this situation will change for the better. In somejurisdictions "all-you-can-eat" data tariffs are already becoming available at a relatively reasonable cost althoughconnectivity and capacity both remain potential stumbling blocks to reliable portable operation.
Despite variouslimitations, convergence between broadcasting and communications platforms is already happening and, as aresult, after a long period of relative inertia, radio broadcasting is currently being exposed to the challenges of aperiod of considerable ongoing change. Despite its various advantages and benefits for broadcasters, whatever else it may be, the Internet is mostdefinitely not a broadcast medium, that is to say, it is not a one-to-many medium, free at the point ofconsumption.
At least in technical terms, once a content stream has been made available,where in the world it is consumed becomes largely irrelevant although, for some forms of content at least, theremay be financial implications related to copyright issues. While it may be technically possible for individualjurisdictions to block or otherwise make unavailable specific types of content or particular web addresses, suchtechniques are rarely applied to anything other than overtly sexually explicit materials and, in some moreauthoritarian regimes, particular types of political content.
The benefits of increased geographical reach, do however come at a price. Broadcasters using the Internetare faced with a marginal cost per each additional listener to the data-stream concerned. In other words, becausecosts to the broadcaster are directly related to the total amount of data being delivered by it, the greater theaverage number of listeners, and the longer they listen, the greater the total cost to the broadcaster.
Morespecifically, it is the concurrent total number of listeners which can have the greatest impact upon streamingcosts. Here it is the cost of overall capacity provision rather than the actual cost of data delivery which is the issue. The greater the potential number of concurrent streams that provision is made for, the greater the cost to thebroadcaster.
Thus, in a financial sense at least, popular Internet broadcasters really can become victims of theirown success! The issue of limitations within the network structure and the transmission protocols of the Internet an do ther IP-based networks is beyond the scope of this paper. However, it is worth noting that although there areways to ameliorate the marginal cost per additional listener for example though the use of multi-cast protocolswhere available, or by employing torrent-like streams , for smaller broadcasters, and for reasons of economies ofscale, such approaches are likely to be impractical, or at best yield only marginally beneficial economic gains.
A potential problem for small-scale broadcasters in some jurisdictions is the issue of net-neutrality. Inthose countries where telecommunications companies and Internet service providers have been allowed to give44 ECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, content, audiences — conference Inareas where network infrastructure is well-developed, this issue may not be too serious a problem, as even highquality audio streams occupy a relatively small amount of bandwidth when compared to either standard or highdefinition video streams.
However, where network capacity is limited, Community Radio services could find theirstreams disrupted by parallel demand for priority traffic. A further issue confronting broadcasters when using the Internet as a delivery platform is its lack ofuniversality when compared to traditional broadcasting.
To begin with, the required broad-band Internetconnection is by no means universal, especially within less economically prosperous communities. Even where abroad-band connection is present, listening to audio streams on a computer is one thing, but delivering thatstream to elsewhere in the home or office is quite another. Even more difficult is the delivery of live streaming content tomobile and portable devices.
Although it is theoretically possible to receive such material via 3G and other highcapacitymobile phone data networks, at present such networks lack robust capacity, and are particularly bad atdelivering linear content to a device on the move. Extrapolating from recent history, there seems very little do ubt that the capacity of fixed and mobilenetworks will continue to increase and that, conversely, the associated costs of such distribution are likely todecrease. However, for the present, although the Internet is already expanding the delivery options forCommunity Radio services, specifically in relation to streamed audio many of the theoretical advantages it offersare currently somewhat hampered by technical and capacity network infrastructure limitations and, for mobileusers, the similar content capacity limitations found in associated mobile phone networks.
ConclusionsDigital delivery methods are already impacting on the activities of Community Radio broadcasters, but notin the way that might have been supposed a decade or so ago. In the United King do m at least, the sector'sinterest in taking up digital radio broadcasting opportunities has been almost non-existent, but, conversely, thevast majority of community stations have already embraced considerable use of web-based digital deliveryopportunities to supplement their traditional analogue broadcasting output.
On the broadcast radio front, recognising the various benefits of FM, the community radio sector islobbying for greater access to Band II spectrum, if and when other PSB and commercial broadcasters arepersuaded to give up simulcasting and switch their broadcasting output to digital platforms. The UK broadcastregulator, Ofcom has long since accepted that an increase in Community Radio provision on FM could be oneoutcome of any move of larger services to alternative digital platforms, such as DAB:In time, it is possible that changes such as an end to simulcasting of existing radio services on analogue anddigital platforms could free-up spectrum that will create more space for new community radio stations.
Ofcom, 28 There is however an element of risk associated with such an approach to the long-term expansion ofCommunity Radio provision. Specifically, there remains no guarantee that digital migration will be implementedand without it access to additional FM spectrum cannot be provided. On the other hand, should digital migrationbe achieved for the majority of radio stations, then community broadcasters remaining on FM could findthemselves in what has by then become an 'analogue backwater' which the majority of potential listeners are nolonger inclined to explore.
Lawrie HallettNevertheless, given the largely inappropriate nature of existing operaional digital radio broadcastingplatforms for community radio services, it is difficult to envisage how else the sector might currently approach thisissue. That said, the current limitations of digital radio broadcasting are, to a large extent, technology specific andemerging second generation platforms, such as Digital Radio Mondiale DRM and the more advanced DRM Plusstandard, have at least the potential to be more relevant to the needs of community broadcasters, assuming thatthey do eventually become an integral part of the radio broadcasting landscape.
In practical terms, the potential emergence of digital radio platforms suitable for use by independentsmall-scale remains, at best, some years off. Whilst it would be prudent for community broadcasters not todismiss the future potential of such systems, continuing to exploit technologies which provide immediate benefitshas to remain the priority. The approach of utilising web-based digital delivery methods, accessible throughcomputers and mobile devices, is already providing increased flexibility and the ability to reach out to communitydiasporas which are not within the coverage of traditional analogue broadcasts.
The Internet and associated new technologies certainly offer some clear benefits for both Community Radio broadcasters and for members of their target communities. For Community Radio , in addition toopportunities for increased operational efficiency and flexibility, the fundamental impacts of the variousdevelopments set out in this paper are three-fold.
In addition, such networks providenumerous opportunities for interaction, which traditional broadcast platforms simply cannot provide. Finally, andperhaps more profoundly, by removing the limitations of broadcast coverage, not only are individual listeners ableto access a wider range of content, but also, as a result, the very nature of target communities is altered. However, new technologies also have their limits, lacking the universality of traditional broadcast platformsand reaching only those who are sufficiently motivated, resourced and media literate enough to engage with thevarious opportunities available through them.
As yet therefore, and despite all their obvious additional benefits,they cannot be considered as replacement technologies for traditional radio broadcasting. That said, given thevarious opportunities for enhanced interactivity and flexibility which they offer, and given the underlyingimportance of such interactivity, it is perhaps not surprising that many Community Radio services have alreadyembraced such technologies as part of their wider approach to building relationships with their targetcommunities.
However, for the foreseeable future at least, traditional analogue broadcasting willcontinue to be unique in its ability to provide locally focused, universal availability at minimal cost to bothCommunity Radio broadcasters and listeners alike. Community radio broadcasters are typically, both by nature and necessity, pragmatists, seeking to servetheir target communities in the most effective and cost effective ways possible.
Digital radio platforms may notbe suitable today and whilst they may just become so in future, by that time it may well be the case that othernon-broadcast solutions will have begun to do minate what today we call radio.
In fact, the most likely future for Community Radio is probably an increasingly hybrid model combining,analogue radio and digital radio platforms with Internet and mobile phone network delivery systems. However, as the technologies used todeliver Community Radio outputs develop over the coming years, already there is no do ubt that the days of singleplatform analogue broadcasting have effectively gone forever. ReferencesBuckley, S.
Duer, T. Mendel and S. Broadcasting, Voice, and Accountability. The community radio order , number Lon do n, Her Majesty's Government. The community radio order , Number Lon do n, The Office ofCommunications. Notes of guidance for community radio licence [sic] applicants and licensees, May Revisedfrom version originally published in August Lon do n, The Office of Communications.
However, according to the results of a study carried out in September Herrera and Requejo, , the five major Spanish talk radio stations used this 2. More than 4 months later, we conduct a new content analysis to checkif the situation remains the same, or if meaningful changes have been made. In this new analysis,we study the tweets posted by the official accounts of these stations over a 2-week period, January28 - February 10, Keywords: Twitter, Spain, radio, usesIntroductionIn less than 5 years, Twitter has become one of the most popular services on the so-called Web 2.
Like the telephone, it facilitates a real-timeexchange of information. Like instant messaging, the information is sent in short bursts. But it extends theaffordances of previous modes of communication by combining these features in both a one-to-many and manyto-manyframework that is public, archived and searchable.
Twitter allows a large number of users to communicatewith each other simultaneously in real-time, based on an asymmetrical relationship between friends and followers. Such versatility has been noted by many disciplines wanting to take advantage of this new system ofcommunication.
After an initial phase of skepticism and observation, more and more media outlets and journalistsare joining Twitter. The aim of this paper is to analyze how major Spanish talk radio stations are making use of thisservice. Do they use it to provide information or to express opinions? Do they use it to correct misinformation, orto gather opinions from their followers? To what extent do they talk with their audiences?
Do they ask foraudience participation? Do the stations link to their websites, blogs, or other websites apart from their own? Dothey use hashtags? These are some of the questions we attempt to answer in this paper. First, we provide a briefintroduction on Twitter as a Web 2. Updates areshown on the user profile page, and are also immediately sent to other users who have chosen to receive them. For this reason, Twitter is also a major component of social networking sites.
Since its inception,its popularity has increased rapidly, due not only to its advanced handling capabilities for reporting what ishappening in real time, but also for its utility in sharing interesting material. Companies and institutions can also use Twitter in diverse ways. Therefore, experts recommend that userstake their time to define and understand the objectives of the service in order to develop a successful strategy.
This exercise seems essential for choosing what content to tweet and for using the application in an optimal way. Why Twitter matters for news organizationsFor news organizations, several scholars e. Among several different proposals, one by Rusbridger , editor in chief of The Guardian, seems particularly appropriate because it is complete and concise. However, the only way media can embrace its true potential is to avoid the same strategies that stationsused in the 1. Despite diverse proposals for media best practices on Twitter Harbison, ; Ingram, ; Kanalley,a, b; Orihuela, , , ; Posetti, ; Sawyer, ; Vargas, a, b the distinctionbetween good content practices and those related to form are useful for the purposes of this paper.
Content practices are related to message intentions. At this point, several scholars stress that the mediashould not care as much 1 about providing information and self-promotion. As for practices that media should avoid on this platform, Vargas turnsout to be very enlightening. As for best form practices, scholars stress the need to: make use of a human voice 8 , link to external contentso that their own contributions can be enriched 9 , provide information in an appealing way, conduct surveysamong their followers, use hashtags in an effective and creative way, link to other networks where the mediummight have a profile, and add multimedia value to the updates through links to pictures, videos, audio files orgraphs.
Metho do logyDespite these best practices, sometimes this 2. This was one of the mainconclusions we drew at the end of , when we conducted a content analysis of the tweets posted by the fivemain Spanish talk radio stations Herrera and Requejo, In our analysis, we coded updates posted by thesestations over a 1-week period, September 6 , Theresults showed that Tweets were used for almost noother purposes.
Conversation is human and personal sometimes fun, sometimessad, sometimes angry, sometimes rejoicing. Identifying information needs, catering our products to meet them and distributing them in a way that makessense. Being willing to participate in the community as individuals, building connections and personalizing our brand. Inviting the community toget to know our people and our processes. Itinvolves: Hosting discussions in person and online on topics that matter to the community.
Valuing how a continuing dialogue can make us better journalists and improves the journalism. It involves: Soliciting and relying on user contributions. Soliciting and using user input about what we should cover and how we should allocateour resources. Valuing the role the users play in reacting to and sharing our content. Lots of other peoplehave interesting things to say - find some and re-tweet them. The best way to make social media work is to allowreporters and editors to be themselves, to be human, and to engage with readers through Twitter and Facebook and comments and blogs.
Is therea risk that someone might say something wrong? Of course there is. Have the five major Spanish talk radiostations modified their use of Twitter in a more creative way? In order to obtain a larger representation, on thisoccasion we chose 2 weeks, January 28 - February, 10, During this period, the stations posted a total of tweets, which were not uniformly distributed: Cadena Cope posted ; Cadena SER posted ; Radio 1 RNE posted 46; Onda Cero posted 41; and Punto Radio posted just 7 tweets, an average of less than one tweet everyother day.
Before conducting the analysis, we assumed the following two starting hypotheses:Hypothesis 1. The five main Spanish talk radio stations underutilize the potential of Twitter, since they onlyuse this service to provide information and for self-promotion. However, they hardly interact or engage with theirfollowers.
Hypothesis 2. As a result, the formal use of Twitter also remains very basic with little use of retweets,external mentions, links to external content, blogs, audios, videos, multimedia material or hashtags. After encoding the tweets included in the sample, we exported the data to SPSS Here are the results. Otheruses were rather insignificant.
Just 2. Data are shown inthe following histogramTo provideinformationFor self-promotionTo gather opinionsamong theirfollowersTo encourage theirfollowers to takepart in a contestTo encourage theirfollowers to posequestionsTo encourage theirfollowers to tell apersonal caseHistogram 1: Main purpose of the messagesLittle creativity in the way Radio 1 used TwitterWhen considering the different uses of Twitter by stations, we observed that Radio 1 exhibited veryrestricted utilization.
We did not register any other use. Less often, the station used Twitter to gather opinions from followers 4. As we noted before, during the day studyperiod, it just posted seven tweets, less than one tweet every other day.
Furthermore, tweets were used mainly forself-promotion, in Spanish talk radio Stations on Twitter: Still reluctant to embrace its potentialFor self promotionTo provide informationHistogram 6: How Punto Radio used TwitterProviding information: Main secondary purposeIn some cases, stations took advantage of a message for a second purpose.
This was observed in As with the first purpose, these updates were intended to provide information 8. All of them originally came from users that werelinked to the medium, which cannot be interpreted as a sign of openness. Moreover, none of these retweets wereenriched. When others were mentioned, the mostcommon practice was to mention a person linked to the station 4. Of the tweets, 0. It seems that thestations used their Twitter accounts to drive traffic to their online editions, with the same self-promotionalapproach observed in other aspects of the research.
Spanish talk radio Stations on Twitter: Still reluctant to embrace its potentialNoYesHistogram Links to station websitesLess openness when linking to other sitesLinking to other websites was, however, quite rare.