Live betting is all the rage at Betway with their easy-to-use In-Play button. Besides their live betting and on-the-go wagering options, this online sportsbook has sport-specific bonuses and is available in a myriad of languages. Known for their killer Welcome Bonus and refer-a-friend program, BetOnline. They also boast early lines and quick payouts, making them one of the most respected in the industry. MasterCard has been around since the s when it was introduced as an interbank alternative to Visa.
Initially, MasterCard was touted as a consumer payment option at merchants where other credit cards were not accepted. Today, MasterCard is almost synonymous with consumer credit with many millions of clients around the world. MasterCard can be used to fund and withdraw on accounts at online sportsbooks; though it is a bit sticky for Americans. Currently, the United States federal banking laws make it illegal for credit services such as MasterCard to be used in that manner. Because of this, American MasterCard clients interested in such transactions are forced to use other methods, such as intermediaries like Skrill or Neteller.
Using an intermediary also provides an extra level of security, keeping devious online merchants from knowing one's personal banking information. Of course, there will be fees when using a MasterCard to fund accounts with MasterCard betting sites, but many online gambling operations offer bonuses that help offset such fees. The presence of a MasterCard logo on a betting site almost acts as an endorsement itself, considering MasterCard's business motives.
They don't usually do business with any fly-by-night operations, and they don't want their clients associated with them, either. MasterCard customers can be confident when dealing with MasterCard betting sites. Most MasterCard betting sites are licensed to operate in their home countries, owned by known parent companies and researched by online sportsbook watchdogs.
With licensing comes regulations and oversight, which in actuality are beneficial to the bettor. Once a bettor has found books he is confident are financially legit, he should then study the books themselves. Which ones have a good reputation for making it easy to make deposits and withdrawals?
Who is fair with their betting lines and odds? Finally, it comes down to which books are best for the individual bettor, based on a few important personal-preference factors; do they offer betting on the events I want to bet on? What are the betting limits? What are the payout limits? What are the odds on parlays? Do they offer in-game betting? According to Omobowale , sports are usually aimed at entertainment and leisure, but their meaning varies among different cultures and people.
The complexity, nature, purpose, and essence of sport has however, always varied over time and across societies. Similarly, Tade noted that sports serve both social and therapeutic purposes across social contexts, including male and female relations in the context of home. In general, national and global terms, sports have the capacity to contribute to development if wellpracticed and understood.
Human growth, progress and development are at the core of social relations and societal existences, and sports play a part here. Bearing that in mind, it is important to engage the implications of sport through its manifestations and implications for human development especially in developing societies.
Sports today like golf, basketball, football are largely capitalistic. There is a large scale subliminal aggressive infusion of capital accumulation into football, particularly in football betting, which is the case in broadcasting and related interests. As football makes incursion into homes and societies, including very remote societies in Africa and Asia, it propagates capitalism in some ways. And many unconsciously embrace capitalism, and its ancillaries, through football. As people are entertained through various sport like football, baseball, basketball and many others, they gradually become involved in capitalist profit motivated practices like betting Vidacs, ; Nauright, The growth of sports betting and gambling promotion during sporting events is a relatively recent phenomenon.
Whereas, historically, sports betting were confined to an individual physically placing a wager on the outcome of a horse or greyhound race, two important changes occurred in the mids. First, some bookmakers moved beyond horse and greyhound racing and started taking bets on the outcome of team sports.
Second, in Victoria, some bookmakers began. Sports Betting And Nigerian Youths: A Study Of Sports Betting In Edo State taking bets over the telephone and then the internet, and in , telephone and Internet sports betting became possible in all Australian states and territories following a High Court ruling that found prohibitions imposed by some states were anticompetitive State of Victoria, Department of Justice Sport betting is the game of gambling whereby individuals make gains from sport by successfully predicting the outcome of various sport events in a competition, tournament or league Tade, For instance, Football betting, in most societies where it is practiced, is fast becoming a popular space for resources exchange within the capitalist remit.
Football betting games has taken a new turn in Nigeria and other nations. Typically all the aforementioned betting companies create an open platform for interested persons to predict the outcome of a game — Football, Basketball, Car race, Hockey, Dog race, Virtual among others. Fans that predict correctly are rewarded and those whose predictions were wrong lose their monies. Youths in Nigeria gamble for different purposes.
These include ego, recreation and relaxation, resource accumulation, therapeutic purposes, such as showing adherence to group norms to avoid sanction, or demonstrating addiction. Gambling is a big business globally to the extent that it is now taxable and regulated as a legitimate business Requirement of Online Sports Betting in Lagos ; National Sport Policy of Nigeria For instance, according to Statistical Portal , even though it may be difficult to accurately estimate the total value of global sports betting, due to the inconsistency in the regulatory and financing environments, responsible surveys estimate the value of sports betting industry at around billion U.
Some bookmakers even believe that sports betting are now worth over one trillion U. It is worth noting that any figure on the process of betting is only an indicative of the official gambling. Most gambling activities are undocumented and operate on the informal levels among friends, colleagues, spouses, relatives, and even enemies, and can be as much as billions of U.
Online betting and football betting particularly are best seen as an ancillary of westernization and globalization Akanle ; Akanle, Olutayo Football has become not only a recreational engagement, but also a social and economic activity with a strong appeal across classes, genders, races, sexuality and other social categorization, especially in Africa and beyond Anderson , ; Cooky ; with continuously huge potential for growth.
What most fans do not know or do not care to know is the capitalist base of the football betting wrapped with recreational norms and values. Majority of football fans in Nigeria are fans of foreign European football leagues. Football betting in Nigeria is consequently organized around major European leagues. In Nigeria commercial nerve centre, Lagos, shanty wooden structure with a number of benches, a television or more and a satellite dish are common sites.
These venues, popularly called viewing centres offer a bulk of the football-mad population in the city a chance to watch the European leagues games usually for less than a dollar N or N50 depending on the location. As the popularity of these matches grew in the early 20s so did this presents of these viewing centres.
Ticket are printed copies of selected games on which bets are placed and since last , they have become more prominent in the Nigeria football landscape as sport betting is now very popular. Despite the notion that sport betting kicked off in Nigeria only recently, the earliest sport betting firms recorded their first entry into the market in Generally, sporting betting involve punters predicting the outcome of matches and getting their bet to correspondence with the stakes.
If the prediction are correct, the bet are rewarded with stipulated winnings. In Nigeria, where there are millions of incredible passionate football fans, sport betting has found it proverbial home. For fans who watch football as a leisurely past time, the ability to make money out it has presented an opportunity too good to pass up. Typically fans are used to hosting heated discussions on the monstrous weekly wages of their favourite footballers but sport betting has turned that conversation off its head.
Football fans now discuss their earnings from bet as the sport has become a viable source of income, every other weekend betting company announce big winnings from bet placed with amount as low as N The possibility of ranking in millions from meager amount is enough motivation for punters across the country to bet on a daily basis and as a result, betting companies record hugely impressive numbers.
Bet9ja a leading betting company in Edo, Lagos and other parts of the country projects that daily stakers run into billions of naira. Currently, we believe daily bet have reach N5 billion, cumulatively across all the betting companies. Punters in the country are currently seeing this as a source daily bread and it is not uncommon to see people appropriating a certain amount for betting daily. Low income earners spend between N to N on bet while high income earners which are tag big ticket customers spend thousands more, although these big ticket customers are firmly in the minority.
In recent years, as Nigeria has become thriving market sport betting firms have sought to latch on and capture market shares to various degrees of success. The default business model sees the companies set up shop in a central working office while seeking to establish a wide network of affiliate agents who open bricks and mortar shops were customers can come in to place bet.
For their part in the business trends, affiliate shops owners or agents as they are formally known earn commissions on the bet placed in their shops. Recently, the Nigeria communication commission announces that internet users in the country had reached 97 million with more than half of the country on line, betting companies recognized the need to established viable online operations.
For this purpose, websites are set up for punters to open personal accounts from which they conduct transaction ranging from depositing funds into an online wallet, placing bet and transferring winnings earned from bet to their bank accounts. While some companies explore both models aggressively others like Nairabet simply choose to remain predominantly online models thus, side stepping the financial and logistical implications of setting up and running a large scale off line model.
As various sports become popular and generate huge interests in Nigeria, capitalists have developed huge economic interests and built businesses around it. The strength of these businesses lies in the football fandom that is still on the increase especially in European and Champions League Tade ; Sport Accord ; SiweiXu ; Omobowale The popularity of the European football is connected with the introduction of Digital Satellite Television DSTV , Eurosport, and other sports channels on the platform of cable and satellite technology in Nigeria in the s Ifeduba, ; UEFA Guiding Principles, and this marked the beginning of a speedy decline in the fan base of local clubs Omobowale, In contemporary terms, the fan base of the local clubs is nearly non-existent, as European clubs mop up the fan base, and football betting among other sports such as golf, basketball, volleyball, polo, rugby, thrives in the gambling and betting game.
Although, recent studies have been conducted on sport betting in Nigeria Tade, ; Ifeduba, ; Omobowale, , all the studies examined the acceptance of sport betting, gambling behaviour of youths and the proliferation of football betting among youths in Nigeria as a whole.
Also, many of the studies were mere theoretical discussion papers which did not collect data from any specific local government or state to determine the perceived benefit of sport betting among the youths.
Hence, a knowledge gap exists on sport betting among youths in a state like Edo. Consequently, this study will be undertaken to fill this gap by investigating sport betting among Nigerian youths in Edo State. The broad objective of the study is to examine sport betting among Nigerian youths in Edo State.
The specific objectives of the study are to: 1. The following research questions are raised to guide the study: What are the various sports youths take bet on in Edo State? How often do youths take bet on various sports in Edo State? What are the reasons why youths of Edo State engage in sport betting?
What are the perceived social-economic contributions of sport betting to the society? What factors are responsible for the acceptance of sport betting among youths in Edo State? The trajectory of sports betting and gambling during sporting events is a relatively nascent phenomenon. Secondly , bookmakers took advantage of technological breakthrough by placing sport bets over the telephone.
For the purpose of this report, the review focuses on placing a wager on sporting events via the Internet. The clandestine nature of these activities means that there is little research evidence into these forms of sports betting and are outside the scope of this report. The rise of on-line betting on sport, and its promotion, has been greeted with considerable levels of public concern, in which the relationship between gambling exposure and participation is seen to pose several implications for sport, health and wellbeing and social policy.
In , concern over the accessibility of the technology, and the increasing presence of the televised promotion of live-odds betting during broadcasts of football and cricket matches particularly during weekend day time television slots led to a Joint Parliamentary Select Committee review into the advertising and promotion of gambling in sport.
The report suggested that a precautionary approach should be adopted, during which time more research could be undertaken into the effects of gambling advertising on children Joint Committee , p. Alongside this, financial and other counselors have warned of an increase in problems associated with on-line sports betting, particularly among young men.
Nonetheless, Dodds notes that the sports betting industry is a global one, yet regulation with the exception of New Zealand has been targeted at provincial or state levels; arguing that there are few national gambling regulators and no international regulatory structures. Dodds contents that the global industry is way ahead of the regulators, and advocates the licensing of on-line sports and other internet gambling with strict regulations especially governing checks on the age of on-line gamblers with regular disclosure to the Australian regulator.
The author suggests establishing an industry-funded Gambling and Wagering Ombudsman and advocates the establishment of regulatory and compliance protocols and standards with other governments, achieved through multi-lateral partnerships like G20, ASEAN, CHOGM and a National Sports Integrity Commission to work with sporting codes and their emerging integrity processes Dodds, At the time of writing, a number of controversies relating to cheating in sport were in the public eye e.
Sports Betting And Nigerian Youths: A Study Of Sports Betting In Edo State Research by Hume on match-fixing and illegal sports betting discusses the relationship between professional sports and the gambling industries, noting that in recent years the relationship between the two sectors has become closer and more complex; that betting agencies are now major sponsors of a number of sporting teams and individual athletes and the gambling industry is a major financial contributor to grassroots sporting clubs throughout Australia.
Research, both in Australia and internationally Hume ; Kelly; , Rodenberg and Kaburakis, , make several key points about the vulnerability of professional sports to the infiltration of organised criminal groups in relation to sports betting. For example, the global nature of sport means that Australian sports and athletes are no longer protected by geographic isolation, thus exposing sports, athletes, officials and the public to potential ethical breaches that take place in an international arena.
In terms of current literature, this is perhaps the great unknown, with the research often contradictory and speculative. On the one hand, the research suggests that certain sections of the population are more heavily represented, and present with greater risk factors, and these may also have a propensity towards or indications of problematic relationships to sports betting young men in particular. What the early research does suggest however, is that that as new forms of gambling are introduced, promoted and delivered via the Internet, mobile phones and related devices, these may expose some groups of people to greater risks Abbott, Romild and Volberg, While the research on sports betting and at-risk groups is in its infancy, there is a limited body of literature that has linked issues of mental health and substance abuse with prospective studies of on-line gambling that have relevance in terms of building a research profile of sports betting, problem gambling and at-risk population groups McCormack, Shorter and Griffiths Later research LaBrie and Shaffer, , argues for the importance of gathering reliable data that can help identify behavioural markers of disordered Internet sports gambling.
Recent preliminary evidence also suggests that on-line gamblers may be at a greater risk of some substance use and mental health problems, relative to non-online gamblers. Scholes-Balog and Hemphill for example, in their review of literature on the relationships between on-line gambling, mental health, and substance use note that online gambling, particularly problematic gambling, was found to be associated with poor mental health and issues of substance misuse.
Similarly, findings from the British Gambling Prevalence Survey link smoking and alcohol use with Internet gambling not sports betting per se Griffiths, Wardle, Orford et al, , that may also be useful for building better understandings of potential cohorts of problem sports betting gamblers.
What this limited literature suggests is that the research into the relationship between sports betting and problematic gambling is underdone, relative to the literature discussed earlier on advertising and promotion, changes in the nature of gambling and motivations for betting on sport. In terms of the need for interventions and prevention, the relationships between issues of mental health and substance use and on-line sports betting need to be better explored.
There is, however, early research among American college students that suggests that excessive alcohol consumption may contribute to higher rates of sports betting among young people. Bhullar, Simons, Joshi and Amoroso looked at the relationships among drinking games, binge drinking and gambling activities in college students. Students who played the lottery once a week had lower binge drinking scores compared to students who played the lottery more than once a week and those students who never played the lottery.
Similar patterns were also detected for students who engaged in sports betting, card playing and games of skill. Students who met the criteria for binge drinking were likely to engage in sports-betting, video gaming and regular poker, office pools, and other games of skill compared to students who did not meet the criteria for binge drinking. The need for. Youth attitudes toward gambling were found to be moderately associated with gambling behavior.
As opportunities to gamble have increased in the 21st Century, so has gambling research. Shaffer et al. They examine 2, citations that were published between and By using multiple keywords to classify each citation into distinct topic areas, their study yielded a more comprehensive analysis than was previously available. Their results reveal that gambling-related research has grown at an exponential rate.
The most prevalent topics explored within gambling studies citations have been pathology, risk-taking, decision-making, and addiction. Between and , studies addressing epidemiology, drug abuse, comorbidity, and neuroscience became increasingly prevalent. Mallach and Gambling and Addictions Research Center , have examined the socioeconomic impact of gambling. Gambling today is a multi-billion-dollar industry with global influence.
For example, it is a prominent part of culture and a major financial contributor to society in Finland and many other countries where governments own, license, and regulate gambling enterprises. Most people in Western societies have some experience of gambling, and many buy a lottery ticket, play slot machines, or bet on sports as a regular part of their leisure activities Raento, What is it like to live with a problem gambler?
What are the day to day concerns that family members must contend with? How do they interpret and construct gambling activities? Furthermore, Tepperman provides firsthand accounts of the problem gambling lifestyle from respondents. These include amongst other things, money problems, time issues, increasing separation from family activities, and the predominance of negative emotional responses to increased gambling.
These contrast not only with psychological portrayals, but also with media images, advertisements, and promotions that represent gambling as fun and glamorous. This chapter deals with the research methodology used by the researcher in this study. This study is covered sport betting among Nigerian youths in Edo State. The geographical coverage is restricted to youths in five 5 selected regions of Edo State. A sample of 40 youths from the selected regions in Edo State would be drawn.
The simple random sampling technique will be used as the method of sampling. The sampling technique will be used to select 40 youths from the five regions — Ekpoma, Auchi, Oredo, Uromi and Ubiaja. This will give a total of youths using the above described sampling method.
A structured questionnaire will be designed to collect data in the study area. The questionnaire will be structured into close ended questions, having two major parts of Section A and B. Part A will deal with personal profile of the respondents such as: sex, age, marital status, educational qualification, and years of experience while the Section B part of the questionnaire will contained data regarding the core research problems which the study aimed at providing data for the test of hypotheses.
Data will be collected from youths at various sport betting centres such as Bet9ja, Bet, Nairabet and Surebet among others in the selected regions of target. The questionnaires will be distributed by the researcher along with two other research assistants. In the order provided by George Homans in his work Social Behavior as Exchange, exchange of activity, tangible or intangible, are more or less rewarding or costly, between at least two people or groups Homans , This view was also supported by later orders of Peter M.
Blau and Richard M. Emerson Blau, ; Emerson Human exchanges are dyadic and have sociological and anthropological appeals as involving both small and large groups within kinship and larger society, as in the case of global and national football betters. Social Exchange Theory hinges on three basic propositions of success, stimulus, and deprivation-satiation. According to the success proposition, when individuals relating with others are rewarded for their actions, they tend to.
According to the stimulus proposition, the more often a given stimulus has resulted in a reward in the past, the more likely a person will respond to it. According to depravation-satiation proposition, the more often in the recent past a person has received a particular reward, the less valuable any further unit of that reward becomes. The tenants of the Social Exchange Theory are as follows: 1.
Most gratification among humans comes from others, 2. People have access to information about social, economic, and psychological aspects of their interactions that allows them to consider alternative, more profitable situations relative to their present situation, 3. People are goal oriented in a freely competitive system, 4. Exchange operates within cultural norms, 5.
Social credit is preferred over social indebtedness, 6. The more deprived the individual feels in terms of an act, the more value the person will assign to it, 7. People are rational and calculate the best possible means to compete in rewarding situations Homans The same is true about punishment avoidance situations. Namely, humans as rational actors will engage and continue to engage in rewarding actions, especially if they meet their social, cultural, psychological and economic goals.
It is, however, important to note that within capitalist social models not all actors are benevolent in their exchange activities. Many are exploitative and will engage in actions and encourage others to engage in actions that bring small capitalist interest of surplus value.
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